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Articulation, mobility, and infrastructure using none todisplay none in asp.net web,windows application(716) 333-2568 Figure 12.7 Heavily obstructed terrain. (909) 831-6876 Mobility also e nables uncertainty reduction in local regions. Most interesting environments contain obstructions to sensing. As discussed in the preceding section, articulation can often suffice to overcome local obstructions.
However, there will be occasions where much larger motions are required. A mobile node might be used to adaptively deposit nodes so that an extensive field of view is obtained, or to perform one-time surveys to determine if a region is worth monitoring. The following two examples illustrate some of the diverse uses for a single mobile agent.
. postnominal Example 12.10 I none for none nto the woods A heavily obstructed region is depicted in Figure 12.7, with nodes on the edge as illustrated with 1808 views.
These obstructions could represent stylized tree trunks. Illustrate the region that is shadowed from view and the shortest track of a mobile observer starting from the node on the left that will over its course detect any object of the size of one square. Detection is reliable if the equivalent of half of one face can be seen by some combination of nodes.
Solution The results are drawn in Figure 12.8, with the most important limits to the field of view of some of the sensors shown. The dashed track finally reaches a location in which at least half of the face of every shadowed square is visible.
A single sensor could be placed there to achieve continuous coverage. Example 12.11 Dungeons and dragons In preparation for entering an underground maze (depicted in Figure 12.
9) containing (it is hoped) treasure that is unfortunately guarded by a highly mobile dragon, an enchanted owl is sent in by cautious adventurers. Each square is 10 m to a side. The owl carries orbs of seeing that provide panoramic views to a range of 20 m, while the owl can see 40 m.
The owl cannot open closed doors but it recognizes them as such. What is the minimum number of orbs that must be placed so that the dragon can never surprise the party of adventurers when they enter the maze, assuming there are no secret passages and the dragon lacks teleportation ability Solution The owl flies the pattern indicated by the dashed line in Figure 12.10.
It must drop orbs at least to cover the doorways in the positions indicated. But this is not actually sufficient, as the. printing data matrix asp.net 12.2 Interaction of mobile and static nodes 2025540513 Figure 12.8 Shadowed region in heavy obstruction. create code 39 c# Entry Incoporate itf-14 on .net Closed door daftberry Figure 12.9 The dungeon. Entry Closed door Figure 12.10 Owl and orbs. dragon may alre ady be in this set of chambers, and could fly into the alcove in the large upper chamber to the left as the owl does its rounds, and in fact could fly back and forth to the deadend tunnel without being detected after the owl has left. Thus orbs must also be deposited to deal with possible movements from as yet unexplored passageways. The first and second orbs to be dropped accomplish these purposes; the dragon cannot reach the upper left chamber unobserved by the owl or the orbs.
The next three orbs observe the doorways. The owl can collect the first two orbs on its way out. The paranoid party can then enter in safety, apart from mechanical traps, charmed defenses, etc.
for which a more intensive sensor sweep would be needed. Obviously less fantastical search and pursuit scenarios can be constructed for the modern world, in which analogous problems arise..
Articulation, mobility, and infrastructure Figure 12.11 Layout of service point G and sensor nodes A, B, and C. Physical moveme none for none nt of samples, information, energy, and additional sensing resources is the prime benefit of mobile elements. This enables some separation between sample collection or observation and the site of the analysis or processing, and between energy consumption and energy generation. Analogously to the basic principle of economics, the relative advantages of particular geographic regions can be exploited, resulting in specialization, provided the costs of trade are low enough.
In 10 the concept of the energy mule was introduced. In the next example analogous considerations for information transport are explored. The basic tradeoffs are much the same regardless of the resources that are moved about; moving larger loads asymptotically reduces the energy cost per unit item transported at the expense of latency.
. Example 12.12 C ommunicate or carry As seen in Example 10.13, the shortest path for a service vehicle for nodes A, B, and C is G to A to C to B to G, and has a length of 20.
6 units. The layout for these nodes is depicted in Figure 12.11.
Here, the service vehicle is used to download data from the nodes rather than supply energy. This might be done because the communication range is less than the distance between nodes, or because of the need for the data to be moved securely. (a) What are the costs and benefits of reducing the interval between the information mule s circuits from 1 to 2 to 4 hours, assuming the nodes generate information at a constant rate (b) Now suppose the information mule must only get within 2 distance units of the nodes to achieve secure, reliable line of sight communications.
What is the lowest energy cost to make the circuit, assuming each unit of distance costs 4 W h Solution (a) The energy cost per bit declines a factor of 2 each time the interval between circuits doubles, and thus asymptotically the energy cost of physical transport of bits goes to zero. Unfortunately, the storage requirements and more importantly the latency go to infinity. (b) The mule passes within 2 units of B in directly approaching either A or C and so B need not be visited on the route.
Assume G to have coordinates (0, 0). There are several plausible triangular paths to take that reach the circles of radius 2 centered upon A and C, illustrated in Figure 12.12.
Following the direct approach from G to A to (4, 1.2) and then connecting to the intersection of the direct approach of G to C (6, 1.5) produces the shortest runs from G.
However, the connecting line is quite long so that the total length is.